I. INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY: MUSICAL PUNCTUATION.
My contribution to this International Congress aims to be the continuation of my first paper about the kalophonic style, read in the Cantus Planus meeting at Sopron last September. In that occasion we dealt, on one hand, with the textual structure of the kalophonic stichera (meaning the division both into verses and sections) and, on the other, with the most common types of word inversions and repetitions which characterize the kalophonic style. Although it was a brief survey, it gave an idea, in my opinion, of how these pieces were thought out and composed, showing a rather fixed general structure which was respected by all composers in most of the cases.
Nevertheless, regarding our actual topic, namely the modal analysis of a kalophonic sticheron, we must go further and make even smaller subdivisions which allow us to analyse each single segment and musical phrase in itself, from the points of view of the modal structure and musical formulae.
For the sake of convenience, I have used the terms "phrase" and "segment" to mean respectively the textual subdivision of a short-verse and a musical unit of a nonsense-passage. In the first case, each phrase bears the number of its corresponding short-verse plus a small letter and they are normally delimitated by musical dots.
As to the segments, they are the very first division we make of the nonsense passages by means - again - of the musical punctuation and, in a few cases where the dots are missing, by means of final cadences which mark clearly the end of a musical unit (see appendices 1a, 1b, 1c , 2a, and 2b .
Indeed, from now on, phrases and segments will be the basis on which we will procede in our musical and modal analysis. The reason for it is that they are the smaller kalophonic units with complete musical meaning, delimitated by musical dots, modal signatures and final cadences.
This paper will only present some remarks, which have been the result of a very long research on the kalophonic style. My whole material consists of the nine kalophonic stichera in the second authentic mode for the month of September, among which five have a second different version. The sources used for my analysis are 10 kalophonic Sticheraria from the 15th century, in possesion of the Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae collection.
For the sake of clarity and brevity, I use as my example the first of the above mentioned stichera, for the feast of Symeon the Stylite (September 1), namely, He leipsanon sou theke
This sticheron has two different versions: the first one (hereinafter 11) occurs in the Sinai Mss: 1251 (1251), 1234 (A), 1584 (B) and 1462 (C). The second version, on the other hand, (hereinafter 12) occurs in the Athos' Mss: Laura E 173 (L) and Vatopediu 1527 (Va).
It must be stressed that the manuscript Sinai 1234 (A), which belongs to the musical tradition of 11, have in common with our sources L and Va (12) the interpolation of two additions (in greek called parekbolai) at the end of the first section, although in a different position.
The two parekbolai have a very clear structure, consisting of:
a) Phrases (textual repetitions of the preceding text)
b) Medial Intonations (MeInt), which make the transition from the last phrase to the first segment
c) Segments of teretismata
d) A textual repetition (see mainly appendix 2: 11).
I have collated all my sources and made new phrases/segments every time any of our manuscripts presents a dot. As a general conclusion of this collation, we can say that, in most cases, the manuscripts agree as to the placing of dots. In other words, the dots are not placed at random but throw some light on the general musical structure of the sticheron and give us some clues for the analysis of the musical kalophonic formulae.
II. THE MODAL STRUCTURE IN THE SYLLABIC AND KALOPHONIC STICHERA.
In describing the modal structure of a sticheron, attention must be paid to three main musical phenomena:
1) The enallage apo parallagon, which consists of a modulation by means of Medial Signatures (MeSi), either in their theoretical pitch or transposed.
2) The final cadences
3) The enallage apo melous, which consists of a "minor" modulation by means of the phthorai.
In the syllabic style, the devices used to mark the modal structure are mainly the MeSi (normally in their theoretical pitch) and the final cadences. In the kalophonic style, however, besides the MeSi and cadences, we come across MeInt with the same modal function and, finally, the use of phthorai.
The use and number of MeSi vary very much in the later kalophonic style in comparison to the syllabic one, as tables 1 and 2 show. In the case of the kalophonic version, the prevailing number of MeSi shows a much more complex modal structure, which is supported by a much more complex treatment of the text.
Therefore, from the point of view of the modal structure, there are - at least - two new features in the kalophonic style which separate it from the syllabic one:
A) The increased number and different use of MeSi
B) The use of MeInt
The use of MeSi in later Stichera of the syllabic style.
The Medial signatures play an important role in the modal structure of the syllabic stichera: they clearly have a musical function, giving the transition from one mode to another within a given melody. However, they also have an structuralizing function, when the textual and syntactic structure determine the position of the MeSi.
According to J. Raasted, the MeSi in the Round Notation Sticheraria are many more than in the Palaeobyzantine period. There has been "a shift of interest from the modal to the syntactical or metrical structure of the Stichera..." to be dated before a.D.1200. In other words, in the syllabic stichera, the structuralizing function prevails over the modal one.
As our first table shows (see also appendix 1), the manuscripts A and S underline the textual and syntactic structure with a MeSi at the beginning of every longverse, except for the refrain. In this case, therefore, the MeSi are structuralizing means to support the longverse structure.
From the modal point of view, on the other hand, these MeSi are "forward-looking", meaning that they introduce the modality of the following phrase. They are introduced by a resting cadence, normally followed by a MeSi and a musical dot, and are used on their theoretical pitch, b, G, E, d and G respectively, meaning that no transposition takes place.
The modal structure in the syllabic version is as follows:
First section: From kurios deuteros we go to its plagal,
I. (B') ----- II. (pl. B')
Transition between sections: From plagal deuteros we go to its mesos: kurios tetartos
Second section: From tetartos we go to kurios deuteros, the main mode,
III. (D') ----- IV. (B')
It can be seen that every change of modality agrees with an important textual turning-point (in other words, the beginning of a new longverse).
The modal structure in the kalophonic Stichera.
For the modal analysis of the kalophonic versions, I will only present my hypothetical reconstruction for the modal structure of the first version (which has very much in common with the second one). To this purpose (see appendix 3a - 3b),
1) I define the modalities according to the initia and final cadences of phrases and segments and
2) I stress with bold letter the cases where a MeSi or phthora occur confirming the modality given by the melismatic formulae of initia and cadences.
- The Initial Teretismata (IT) are in the second authentic mode, except for a slight modulation to the nenano mode.
- The Basic Text (BT) continues in the second authentic mode. It follows a slight modulation to nenano and a parallage (by means of consecutive second steps upwards) which leads again to the deuteros mode. The BT ends in plagios deuteros-nenano mode, which is the beginning of the FT.
- The Final Teretismata (FT) continues in plagios deuteros-nenano mode, except for a slight modulation to the deuteros mode.
- Finally, the Textual Repetition (TR) begins with a parallage which leads to the deuteros mode (the same phenomenon as before) and it ends in the plagios deuteros mode.
- The Initial Echemata (IE) begin a new modality, the tetartos mode transposed a fourth lower (d'= a, implying F sharp).
- The BT goes on in (d'= a) until another modulation (and transposition) comes: a'= b, implying F sharp once again. Due to the deuteros MeSi in S.1462 (C), we come back for a while to the main mode of the sticheron, but we end in d'= a, as at the beginning of the second section.
- The FT keeps the tetartos MeSi transposed a fourth lower, except for slight modulations to the deuteros and nenano mode. In the case of the Mss. 1251, A and B, we end the FT and begin the TR in nenano, while in our source C, we do it in the deuteros mode.
- The TR makes a slight modulation to the tetartos mode (=a) and, finally, the refrain apo chorou which makes the last modulation from deuteros to plagios deuteros mode.
In this brief contribution, I have only had the time to make a few remarks on the modal structure of the kalophonic stichera by means, mainly, of the MeSi (the above mentioned enallage apo parallagon) and cadences. However, there are still many aspects left which I hope to deal with at a later occasion.
Table 2a, MeSi in the Kalophonic Version 1,1(Group1)
Table 2b, Mesi in the kalophonic Version 1,2 (Group 2)
Table 3, The Parekbolai BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Jorgen Raasted, Intonation Formulas and Modal Signatures in Byzantine Musical Manuscripts. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, Subsidia VII. Copenhagen 1966.
- Gregorios Stathes, Hoi anagrammatismoi kai ta mathemata tes byzantines melopoi´as. Athens 1979.